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Deep penetration fillet weld

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escena de sexo contra la pared. The deepest possible weld penetration is always best. Are these statements As an example, refer to the T joint and fillet weld in Figure 3.

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The required weld. Fillet Deep penetration fillet weld joints such as 'T', lap and corner joints are the most common z = leg length s = deep penetration throat thickness. Fig. 2. Mitre fillet. Fig 3.

Xxxboy Vidio Watch Titty fucking with hijabi mature Video Bbw Xnxxsexx. Or if it is a square edge joint shown in bottom picture , then after the first side is welded, the second side of joint must first be back gouged to sound weld metal. Then the second side is welded. If welding procedures that produced a deeper weld penetration were used, then the depth of the joint bevels would not need to be as deep, making the root face longer. Or in the case of square edges, not as much base plate on the second side would need to be removed by back gouging before sound weld metal was reached. In either case, the volume of weld metal required to fill the joint would be reduced. This reduces both the amount of filler metal required to fill the joint and the welding time. Less welding would also reduce potential plate warpage issues. For fillet welds with a flat face and even leg sizes, the distance from the weld face to the root is called the theoretical throat. If you achieve fusion beyond the root, then the actual or effective throat length increases see Figure 3 for identification of the theoretical and actual throats. Generally, no design credit of extra weld strength is given for normal root penetration. However, if significant and consistent root penetration can be achieved, which significantly increases the effective throat depth, then the fillet leg size can be reduced without sacrificing weld strength see example in Figure 7. Deeper weld penetration does not produce a fillet weld with more weld strength. Rather, it allows a smaller fillet weld to be made with the same strength level as a larger fillet weld made with less weld penetration. Smaller fillet welds decrease the amount of weld metal needed, and may even allow for increased travel speeds. This benefit could be potentially realised by using the Submerged Arc Welding SAW process, known for its deep penetration capabilities. Other arc welding processes can be capable of achieving deep penetration as well. However, the fabrication shop must be capable of producing the deeper penetration level on a consistent basis, so this concept may not always be applicable. This Welding Innovations article from the James F. About Us. A fillet weld is the most common weld type in steel building construction. The Directional Method is described below. Figure 03 - Beam. When modeling, the weld must be connected to the edges of two elements. One of these elements can also be a dummy element. The solid line is the nominal geometry of the joint gap g. Penetration depth measurements i m v. Estimating gap size from image sequences is a problem of feature extraction based on image binarization followed by a transformation of projections and temporal filtering. The image binarization was initiated by a median filtering to remove noise. Median filtering is commonly used in image processing since it preserves edges while removing noise [ 2 ]. Next, the Otsu multi-threshold method [ 24 ] was applied. This is a nonparametric and unsupervised method of automatic threshold selection in images. An optimal threshold is selected by a discriminant criterion to maximize the disjunction of the resultant classes in grey levels. Finally, the point closest to the top of the image among the resultant binarized classes was selected to be used for the gap size estimate g e. Two sets of images of the weld pool at two time instances top bottom. Left images are from the vision camera, middle images are fused images and right images are from the infrared camera. Gap size g along the weld joint. Black curve shows estimated gap size from the fused image sequence. Red curve shows the nominal gap size. Temporal frequency content content in the estimated gap size signal g e from the visual camera image sequence. Nominal gap size g and gap size estimates g e along the weld joint. The dotted curve is from the infrared camera, the dashed curve from the vision camera and the dash-dotted curve is from the fused image sequence. Penetration depth along the weld joint. The solid curve is penetration depth estimates i e. The red circles show measured penetration depth i m. The relation between measured gap size and penetration depth, g m and i m , displays a significant variability. This is explained by two causes. The first cause is the natural variability that is independent of the gap size. This variability is caused by e. The other cause is due to measurement uncertainties. One measurement uncertainty is related to the exact positioning of the cross cut along the welded seam. This uncertainty emanates from the manual cutting procedure that has been employed see Fig. Another uncertainty relates to the gap size measurement g m and is mainly caused by imperfections in the metallographic preparation where burr on the edges are present due to the rough grinding. The uncertainty in the penetration depth measurement i m is mainly due to the resolution of the microscope used and in the manual judgement of distances in the images. However, all these uncertainties in the measurements are small compared to those in the natural process variability and also the uncertainty in the gap size estimates g e from the camera image sequences. The empirical model linear fit that relates the penetration depth to gap size is expected to perform sufficiently well when used for predictions. The root-mean-square deviation between the data and the linear fit is 0. Root-mean-square deviation in mm between the gap size estimates g e and the nominal geometry of the gap size g. This comparison tells that there is no major dissimilarity in performance of the different estimates. It can be concluded that the suggested method, evaluated off-line, is promising to really achieve in-process monitoring for prediction of weld penetration depth during one-sided fillet welding using the MAG process. A first conclusion might be that the results are rather pessimistic see Fig. It is however believed that further development of the methods used will result in a better prediction performance. Empirical modelling resulted in a linear fit between joint gap size and weld penetration depth in the gap size range between 0 and 1 mm. Even though there is an uncertainty in data, it is regarded reasonable to assume a linear relation in this range. When comparing the results from the camera setup, one can conclude that the infrared camera performs best and that image fusing requiring two cameras does not add any significant improvement in performance. Especially when considering the additional complexity and cost associated with a double-camera setup, it is concluded that further efforts to reach a better prediction performance should only include one camera. It is expected that improvements can be done in the numerical feature extraction but the major improvements will come from optimizing the physical pose of the camera and the optical setup. Future work should be directed towards further developments of the method for increased robustness both in the prediction and in an industrially tractable physical setup of the monitoring equipment. The method should also be evaluated in a real-time system. Another interesting option is to evaluate the performance of closed-loop control using penetration monitoring to adopt the welding current to variations in gap size. The designer may specify a leg length that is equal to the material thickness as in Fig. Strength considerations may mean that the fillet weld size does not need to be anywhere near the plate thickness. In practice the weld may also be deficient in other ways, for example:. Due to melting away of the corner of the upper plate Fig. Care is therefore needed to ensure that the corner of the upper plate is not melted away. Ideally the weld should be some 0. The designer may therefore specify a slightly smaller leg length compared to the thickness of the component. To compensate for this reduction in throat thickness it may be necessary to specify a deep penetration fillet weld. This amount of additional penetration would need to be confirmed by suitable weld tests. Additional controls may also be needed during production welding to ensure that this additional penetration is being achieved consistently. In addition to the reduction in throat thickness there is the potential for additional problems such as overlap at the weld toe due to the larger weld pool size Fig. Both the potential problems shown in Figs. This reduces both the amount of filler metal required to fill the joint and the welding time. Less welding would also reduce potential plate warpage issues. Figure 6: Joints Requiring Penetration. For fillet welds with a flat face and even leg sizes, the distance from the weld face to the root is called the theoretical throat. If you achieve fusion beyond the root, then the actual or effective throat length increases see Figure 3 for identification of the theoretical and actual throats. Generally no design credit of extra weld strength is given for normal root penetration. However, if significant and consistent root penetration can be achieved, which significantly increases the effective throat depth, then the fillet leg size can be reduced without sacrificing weld strength see example in Figure 7. Deeper weld penetration does not produce a fillet weld with more weld strength. Rather, it allows a smaller fillet weld to be made with the same strength level as a larger fillet weld made with less weld penetration. Smaller fillet welds decrease the amount of weld metal needed, and may even allow for increased travel speeds. This benefit could be potentially realized by using the Submerged Arc Welding SAW process, known for its deep penetration capabilities. Other arc welding processes can be capable of achieving deep penetration as well. However, the fabrication shop must be capable of producing the deeper penetration level on a consistent basis, so this concept may not always be applicable. Figure 7: There are also situations in which deeper weld penetration can be detrimental. Here are three examples: Deep penetration can be troublesome when burn through is a concern. When welding on thin material, such as gauge thickness sheet metal, too much penetration can cause the weld to burn all the way through the joint and fall out the bottom. In other cases, a thin root pass is made in an open root joint e. If the second pass has too much penetration, burning through the root pass can be an issue..

Deep. So a strong or deep penetration weld, in steel, basically means proper prep work. is to combine both 'penetration depth' and 'fusion area for a given fillet size'.

Fillet welded joints such as 'T', lap and corner joints are the most common connection in welded fabrication. It is likely that a high percentage of other joining techniques also use some form of a fillet welded joint including non-fusion processes Deep penetration fillet weld as brazing, braze welding and soldering.

The deepest possible weld penetration is always best. Are these statements As an example, refer to the T joint and fillet weld in Figure 3. Fillet Welds Deep penetration fillet weld. Introduction The deep penetration of submerged arc welding effects substantial economies in welding wire consumption compared with other. An oversized weld is therefore very costly to produce, may not have 'better strength' and is wasteful of welding click here and may see other fabrication problems including excessive distortion.

As discussed earlier, oversized welds are commonplace and the lap joint is no exception. The Deep penetration fillet weld may specify a leg length that is equal to the material thickness as in Fig.

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Strength considerations may mean that the fillet weld size does not need to be anywhere near the plate thickness. In practice the weld may also be deficient in other ways, for example:. Due to melting away of the corner of Deep penetration fillet weld upper plate Fig. Care is therefore needed to ensure that the corner of the upper plate is not melted away. Ideally the weld should be some 0.

The designer may therefore specify a slightly smaller leg length compared to the thickness of the component. To compensate for this reduction in throat thickness it may be necessary to specify a deep penetration fillet weld. This amount of additional penetration would need to be confirmed by suitable weld tests.

Additional controls may also be Deep penetration fillet weld during production welding to ensure that click here additional penetration is being achieved consistently. My Account. Login Login. Create New Account Reset Password. Structural Analysis and Design Software. Back to Knowledge Base. The design resistance of the fillet weld will be sufficient if the following are both satisfied: To achieve click here proper weld strength, all welding requires complete fusion to occur between the pieces of metal and filler metal, but Deep penetration fillet weld all joints require a large depth of fusion or deep penetration.

As long as you have achieved complete fusion between the filler metal and the base Deep penetration fillet weld and when appropriate, the steel backing baryou have successfully joined the metal together into one homogenous piece. It does not matter if you have deep penetration or shallow penetration.

Theoretically but not realisticallyyou could even have complete fusion to just the depth of a few molecules and still have welded the pieces together. As an example, refer to the T joint and fillet weld in Figure 3. The required weld strength is achieved by having complete fusion and by producing the proper fillet weld size measured by either the leg length or theoretical throat length for a given weldment.

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The appropriate weld size needed to achieve adequate weld click is determined by the design engineer during the design stage. How this Deep penetration fillet weld determined is beyond the scope of Deep penetration fillet weld article.

However, as the fabricator, as long as you make the proper sized weld per the design specification and achieve complete fusion between the filler metal and base plates, including the root, you have produced a weld of sufficient strength.

Iisuperwomanii naked Watch Clip home teen video Video Hot Veatnam. In the UK the weld size is frequently specified by referring to the leg length 'z' in EN ISO where the number gives the weld size in millimetres as shown in Fig. In Europe, it is more common to find the design throat thickness, 'a' specified Fig. Once the drawing has been issued to the shop floor, it is usual to find an additional safety factor also being applied on by the welder or inspector. It is also common to hear 'add a bit more it will make it stronger'. The outcome is an oversized weld with perhaps an 8mm leg length rather than the 6mm specified by the designer. This coupled with the already over specified weld size from the designer's 'safety factor' may lead to a weld that is twice the volume of a correctly sized fillet weld. By keeping the weld to the size specified by the drawing office, faster welding speeds can be achieved, therefore increasing productivity, reducing overall product weight, consumable consumption and consumable cost. The other benefit is that, in the case of most arc welding processes, a slight increase in travel speed would in most cases see an increase in root penetration so that the actual throat thickness is increased:. An oversized weld is therefore very costly to produce, may not have 'better strength' and is wasteful of welding consumables and may see other fabrication problems including excessive distortion. As discussed earlier, oversized welds are commonplace and the lap joint is no exception. The designer may specify a leg length that is equal to the material thickness as in Fig. Strength considerations may mean that the fillet weld size does not need to be anywhere near the plate thickness. Proper weld strength for a CJP groove weld is achieved by having complete weld fusion and by using the correct strength filler metal i. Again, weld strength is not determined by the level of penetration into the base plates. Note also that with a CJP groove weld, the size of the weld does not determine weld strength either, as it does with a fillet weld. Rather, weld size is simply the resulting volume of weld metal necessary to fill in the joint of the proper dimensions i. Proper joint dimensions are those which allow enough access of the electrode into the joint so that good welding techniques can be used to achieve complete fusion with the base plates and steel backing bar. In addition, proper joint dimensions are necessary to ensure that the root pass has the correct depth to width ratio discussed later in this article. The need to achieve complete fusion has been emphasized in this article. That is because a problem can arise if you have a lack of fusion in any part of the joint. This can be a discontinuity with the sidewall fusion, properly termed joint penetration , or fusion at the root, properly termed root penetration. Incomplete fusion can become a weld defect area, which can affect the weld strength and ultimately lead to weld failure. Figure 5 shows examples of acceptable and unacceptable weld profiles. While not necessarily related to weld strength, there are situations in which deeper weld penetration can be beneficial. Here are three examples:. As stated earlier, you must achieve complete fusion at the root of a weld joint. When you have a welding procedure that produces a deeper weld penetration and a resulting wider penetration profile , you increase the chances of still achieving complete fusion at the root, even with welders that have limited skills. A deeper and broader penetration profile covers a bigger area. Thus you are more likely to still hit the root i. Figure 6 shows examples of CJP groove welds in a butt joint with a root face dimension i. Commmon Joint and Weld Types. Arc welding is taking two or more separate pieces of metal and joining them into one continuous or homogeneous section. You achieve coalescence, which means to blend or come together. In other words, the purpose of arc welding is to achieve fusion between the initially separate pieces of metal. Fusion occurs when you have atomic bonding of the metals. The molecules of each separate piece of metal and the filler metal bond together when you have 1 atomic cleanliness and 2 atomic closeness see Figure 2. This occurs with arc welding such that the atoms of each piece of metal bond together with shared electrons to become one solid or homogeneous piece of metal. Figure 2: Atomic Bonding. A cross section of a weld particularly when etched will show you the penetration profile of the weld, including the depth and width of penetration see examples in Figures 3 and 4 , which also name and highlight the various parts of a fillet and groove weld. To achieve the proper weld strength, all welding requires complete fusion to occur between the pieces of metal and filler metal, but not all joints require a large depth of fusion or deep penetration. As long as you have achieved complete fusion between the filler metal and the base plates and when appropriate, the steel backing bar , you have successfully joined the metal together into one homogenous piece. It does not matter if you have deep penetration or shallow penetration. Theoretically but not realistically , you could even have complete fusion to just the depth of a few molecules and still have welded the pieces together. As an example, refer to the T joint and fillet weld in Figure 3. The required weld strength is achieved by having complete fusion and by producing the proper fillet weld size measured by either the leg length or theoretical throat length for a given weldment. The appropriate weld size needed to achieve adequate weld strength is determined by the design engineer during the design stage. How this is determined is beyond the scope of this article. However, as the fabricator, as long as you make the proper sized weld per the design specification and achieve complete fusion between the filler metal and base plates, including the root, you have produced a weld of sufficient strength. Weld strength is not determined by the level of penetration into the base plates. Figure 3: The gap size estimate used for prediction also requires a calibration of the optical set up that is used. The use of other base metals, plate thickness and MAG processes most probably requires separate experiments for each combination in order to establish the relation between penetration and gap for the actual situation. The research work behind this paper has been partly funded by The Knowledge Foundation. A great contribution has been made by the staff at the Volvo CE Arvika plant. A special thanks to Xiao Xiao Zhang for preparing the test samples and Anna-Karin Christiansson for proof reading and input to the text. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. Prediction of penetration in one-sided fillet welds by in-process joint gap monitoring—an experimental study. Open Access. First Online: The penetration depth in fillet welds corresponds to the extension of bounding in the root between plates see Fig. The reason for addressing this issue is that imperfections in the weld root has an influence on fatigue life and structural integrity [ 9 ]. This in turn has a direct negative effect on the quality and service life of welded structures. Important mechanisms behind variations in penetration depth are for example inaccuracy in the robotic manipulator motions, plate surface condition joint preparation and variations in the joint gap. The latter mechanism is considered to be a major source of variance and is caused by wide fit-up tolerances in the included plate members. This situation is very common in welding production in e. Open image in new window. Typical fillet welds are shown in Fig. A cruciform weld sample was produced from mm-long metal plates of mm-thick standard structural steel, S, aligned to form two one-sided corner joints. The geometry has zero gap sections along the joints alternated with three equally spaced segments, each mm long, with a well-defined gap in the form of arches with a maximum height of 1 mm. This joint gap geometry was produced by water jet cutting. Furthermore, the plates were tack welded in the zero gap sections. In total, six segments of known variation in gap size were evaluated. The MAG process mode used was spray arc. Copper-coated 1. The welding robot was programmed to execute torch weaving with a weaving frequency of 2. No joint tracking system was applied. Table 1 Nominal welding parameters. Parameter Value Voltage The vision camera has a high dynamic range HDR sensor with a range of dB. This is typically the case with MAG welding where one would like to capture geometrical features surrounding the melted welding area in the presence of the very high intensity light from the arc plasma. For this reason, it is essential to take full advantage of the quantification levels provided by the image sensor. The Lin-Log CMOS sensor in the camera used satisfies this demand by an adjustable intensity response curve that combines linear and logarithmic responses [ 4 ]. The spectral response of this camera is in the range to nm see Fig. The infrared camera has an InGaAs detector with a spectral response in the range to nm see Fig. Both cameras have an active pixel sensor and global shutter technologies enabling high speed imaging. It has a nm cut-off wavelength to separate the spectral ranges of the cameras. The vison camera sees right through the mirror. Gap size and penetration depth are measured from images of grind and etched cross cut from along the weld seam showing the fused zone see Fig. The measured data i m and g m is obtained from in total 37 cross cuts and then used in a regression analysis. The relation between the measured gap size g m and penetration depth i m is shown in Fig. Bi-square weights were used in an iteratively reweighted least-squares algorithm [ 14 ]. The reason for employing a robust regression method is that it is designed not to be overly affected by violations of assumptions by the underlying data-generating process. In this work, the underlying statistical distributions of the data is not investigated. Structural Analysis and Design Software. Back to Knowledge Base. The design resistance of the fillet weld will be sufficient if the following are both satisfied: Springer Vieweg. Contact us Do you have questions or need advice? Yes No..

Weld strength is not determined by the level of penetration into the base plates. As another example, refer to the butt joint and complete joint penetration CJP single V groove weld in Figure 4. Proper weld strength for a CJP groove weld Deep penetration fillet weld achieved by having complete weld fusion and by using the correct strength filler metal i.

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Again, weld strength is not determined by the level of penetration into the base plates. Note also that with a CJP groove weld, the size of the weld does not determine weld strength either, as it does with a fillet Deep penetration fillet weld.

Zora Porno Watch Naked pictures of teri hatcher Video Hotel Chiting. Contact us Do you have questions or need advice? Yes No. Cross-Sections Thin-Walled. Cross-Section Properties Software. Price of First License 1, Contacts Dlubal Software, Inc. How this is determined is beyond the scope of this article. However, as the fabricator, as long as you make the proper sized weld per the design specification and achieve complete fusion between the filler metal and base plates, including the root, you have produced a weld of sufficient strength. Weld strength is not determined by the level of penetration into the base plates. As another example, refer to the butt joint and complete joint penetration CJP single V groove weld in Figure 4. Proper weld strength for a CJP groove weld is achieved by having complete weld fusion and by using the correct strength filler metal i. Again, weld strength is not determined by the level of penetration into the base plates. Note also that with a CJP groove weld, the size of the weld does not determine weld strength either, as it does with a fillet weld. Rather, weld size is simply the resulting volume of weld metal necessary to fill in the joint of the proper dimensions i. Proper joint dimensions are those which allow enough access of the electrode into the joint so that good welding techniques can be used to achieve complete fusion with the base plates and steel backing bar. In addition, proper joint dimensions are necessary to ensure that the root pass has the correct depth to width ratio discussed later in this article. The need to achieve complete fusion has been emphasized in this article. That is because a problem can arise if you have a lack of fusion in any part of the joint. This can be a discontinuity with the sidewall fusion, properly termed joint penetration , or fusion at the root, properly termed root penetration. Incomplete fusion can become a weld defect area, which can affect the weld strength and ultimately lead to weld failure. Figure 5 shows examples of acceptable and unacceptable weld profiles. While not necessarily related to weld strength, there are situations in which deeper weld penetration can be beneficial. Here are three examples:. As stated earlier, you must achieve complete fusion at the root of a weld joint. Again, weld strength is not determined by the level of penetration into the base plates. Note also that with a CJP groove weld, the size of the weld does not determine weld strength either, as it does with a fillet weld. Rather, weld size is simply the resulting volume of weld metal necessary to fill in the joint of the proper dimensions i. Proper joint dimensions are those which allow enough access of the electrode into the joint so that good welding techniques can be used to achieve complete fusion with the base plates and steel backing bar. In addition, proper joint dimensions are necessary to ensure that the root pass has the correct depth to width ratio discussed later in this article. Figure 4: Parts of a Groove Weld. The need to achieve complete fusion has been emphasized in this article. That is because a problem can arise if you have a lack of fusion in any part of the joint. This can be a discontinuity with the sidewall fusion, properly termed joint penetration , or fusion at the root, properly termed root penetration. Incomplete fusion can become a weld defect area, which can affect the weld strength and ultimately lead to weld failure. Figure 5 shows examples of acceptable and unacceptable weld profiles. Figure 5: Fillet Weld Profiles. While not necessarily related to weld strength, there are situations in which deeper weld penetration can be beneficial. Here are three examples:. As stated earlier, you must achieve complete fusion at the root of a weld joint. When you have a welding procedure that produces a deeper weld penetration and a resulting wider penetration profile , you increase the chances of still achieving complete fusion at the root, even with welders that have limited skills. A deeper and broader penetration profile covers a bigger area. Thus you are more likely to still hit the root i. Figure 6 shows examples of CJP groove welds in a butt joint with a root face dimension i. Fig 4. Weld sizes in relation to the required leg lengths or throat thickness. The weld size is communicated by using an appropriate weld symbol. The other benefit is that, in the case of most arc welding processes, a slight increase in travel speed would in most cases see an increase in root penetration so that the actual throat thickness is increased: Lap joints welded with fillet welds. In practice the weld may also be deficient in other ways, for example: Fig 8. Example showing an undersized fillet weld, often termed a 'no weld' in some specifications. Fig 9. Ideally the weld should be 0. Fig Overlap at the weld toe due to the larger weld pool size. This in turn has a direct negative effect on the quality and service life of welded structures. Important mechanisms behind variations in penetration depth are for example inaccuracy in the robotic manipulator motions, plate surface condition joint preparation and variations in the joint gap. The latter mechanism is considered to be a major source of variance and is caused by wide fit-up tolerances in the included plate members. This situation is very common in welding production in e. Open image in new window. Typical fillet welds are shown in Fig. A cruciform weld sample was produced from mm-long metal plates of mm-thick standard structural steel, S, aligned to form two one-sided corner joints. The geometry has zero gap sections along the joints alternated with three equally spaced segments, each mm long, with a well-defined gap in the form of arches with a maximum height of 1 mm. This joint gap geometry was produced by water jet cutting. Furthermore, the plates were tack welded in the zero gap sections. In total, six segments of known variation in gap size were evaluated. The MAG process mode used was spray arc. Copper-coated 1. The welding robot was programmed to execute torch weaving with a weaving frequency of 2. No joint tracking system was applied. Table 1 Nominal welding parameters. Parameter Value Voltage The vision camera has a high dynamic range HDR sensor with a range of dB. This is typically the case with MAG welding where one would like to capture geometrical features surrounding the melted welding area in the presence of the very high intensity light from the arc plasma. For this reason, it is essential to take full advantage of the quantification levels provided by the image sensor. The Lin-Log CMOS sensor in the camera used satisfies this demand by an adjustable intensity response curve that combines linear and logarithmic responses [ 4 ]. The spectral response of this camera is in the range to nm see Fig. The infrared camera has an InGaAs detector with a spectral response in the range to nm see Fig. Both cameras have an active pixel sensor and global shutter technologies enabling high speed imaging. It has a nm cut-off wavelength to separate the spectral ranges of the cameras. The vison camera sees right through the mirror. Gap size and penetration depth are measured from images of grind and etched cross cut from along the weld seam showing the fused zone see Fig. The measured data i m and g m is obtained from in total 37 cross cuts and then used in a regression analysis. The relation between the measured gap size g m and penetration depth i m is shown in Fig. Bi-square weights were used in an iteratively reweighted least-squares algorithm [ 14 ]. The reason for employing a robust regression method is that it is designed not to be overly affected by violations of assumptions by the underlying data-generating process. In this work, the underlying statistical distributions of the data is not investigated. The reason for this choice is that a larger gap results in a projection of light reflections that reaches closer to the top of the image. The images in Fig. The top left image demonstrates an erroneously selected point where a reflection from the welding arc at the flange plate constitutes the highest point. A projection transformation of the set of data from the feature extraction is then employed. This is to scale and offset adjust calibrate the image-based gap signal to the known physical gap size along the weld joint. The transformation fits the estimated gap to the nominal joint geometry by solving the normal equations for a least square fit. Even if the signal is very noisy, the low frequency content clearly follows the actual gap variations along the weld joint. The noise in the signal extracted from the two previous steps includes a significant interference from the robot torch weaving. The temporal frequency content of the mean-subtracted signal is given by the periodogram in Fig. The spectral density estimation clearly shows the periodic disturbance corresponding to the torch weaving with a fundamental frequency of 2. A forth-order digital Butterworth low-pass filter has been used for zero-phase filtering [ 23 ] to suppress the periodic disturbance and disclose the gap size estimate g e. The filter has a cut-off frequency chosen to attenuate the periodic torch weaving disturbance. The result from spatial image filtering, image binarization, feature extraction, projection transformation and finally temporal signal filtering is a scalar signal that estimates the gap size..

Rather, weld size is simply the resulting volume of weld metal necessary to fill in the joint of the proper dimensions i. Proper joint dimensions are those which allow enough access of the electrode into the joint so that good welding techniques can be used to achieve complete fusion with Deep penetration fillet weld base plates and steel backing bar.

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In addition, proper joint dimensions are necessary to ensure that the root pass has the correct depth to width ratio discussed later in this article. The need to achieve complete fusion has been emphasized in this article. Gap size and penetration depth are measured from images of grind and etched cross cut from along the weld seam showing the fused zone see Deep penetration fillet weld.

To keep the article fairly short, the discussion will be limited to arc welding, two common types of weld joints T and butt and two common types of welds fillet and groove.

The measured data i m and g m is obtained Deep penetration fillet weld in total 37 cross cuts and then used in a regression analysis. The relation between the measured gap Deep penetration fillet weld g m and penetration depth i m is shown in Fig. Bi-square weights were used in an iteratively reweighted least-squares algorithm [ 14 ]. The reason for employing a robust regression method is that it is designed not to be overly affected by violations of assumptions by the underlying data-generating process.

In this work, the underlying statistical distributions of the data is not investigated. The reason for this choice is that a larger gap results in a projection of light reflections that reaches closer to the top of the image. The images in Fig. The top left image demonstrates an erroneously selected point where a reflection from the welding arc at the flange plate constitutes the highest point.

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  2. I have heard some people say that with all welding, you must have deep or maximum penetration into the base plate in order for a weld to be strong. If you have shallow penetration, the weld is weaker.
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A projection transformation of the set of data from the feature extraction is then employed. This is to scale and offset adjust calibrate the image-based gap signal to the known physical gap size Deep penetration fillet weld the weld joint.

The transformation fits the estimated gap to the nominal joint geometry by solving the normal equations for a least square fit.

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Even if the signal is Deep penetration fillet weld noisy, the low frequency content clearly follows the actual gap variations along the weld joint.

The noise in the signal extracted from the two previous steps includes a significant interference from the robot torch weaving. The temporal frequency content of the mean-subtracted signal is given by the periodogram in Click at this page. The spectral density estimation clearly shows the periodic disturbance corresponding to the torch weaving with a fundamental frequency of 2.

A forth-order digital Butterworth low-pass filter has been used for zero-phase Deep penetration fillet weld [ 23 ] to suppress the periodic disturbance and disclose the gap size estimate g e. The filter has a cut-off frequency chosen to attenuate the periodic torch weaving disturbance. The result from spatial image filtering, image binarization, feature extraction, projection transformation and finally temporal signal filtering is a scalar signal that estimates the gap size.

The algorithm used for this estimation is given in Fig. The Deep penetration fillet weld in Fig. An example of the capability of this system is given in Fig. The performance of the different gap size estimates using camera monitoring is evaluated by comparing the root-mean-square deviation between the estimates and the nominal joint geometry. Table 2 Root-mean-square Deep penetration fillet weld in mm between the gap size estimates g e and the nominal geometry of the gap size g.

Vision Infrared Fused 0.

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Acknowledgments The research work behind this paper has been partly funded by The Knowledge Foundation. Alfaro SCA, de S.

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J Mater Process Technol 1—3: Ann Stat 37 3: J Achiev Mater Manuf Eng 29 1: Sensors 9 9: Elsevier, pp — Google Scholar.

Procedia Eng Fricke W IIW guideline for the assessment of weld root fatigue.

Naked milfes Watch Terry hatcher images naked Video Sexafspraakje24. When welding on thin material, such as gauge thickness sheet metal, too much penetration can cause the weld to burn all the way through the joint and fall out the bottom. In other cases, a thin root pass is made in an open root joint e. If the second pass has too much penetration, burning through the root pass can be an issue. If penetration is too deep, centerline cracking a form of hot cracking may become an issue. See Figure 8 for an example of a centerline crack in a fillet weld. A balance must be maintained between the depth of penetration and the width of the root pass. This keeps the shape of the weld fairly uniform. As the weld metal solidifies, the shrinkage stresses are thus fairly uniform in all directions. However, if the weld is significantly deeper than wide, then the shrinkage stresses are unequal and the weld will crack in the center of the bead as a result. Figure 8: Too much admixture with the base plate may also be a problem with deep penetration welds. As penetration increases, so does the volume of base plate that is melted and combined with the filler metal in the resulting weld puddle. This can possibly add additional elements into the weld puddle that makes the weld more crack sensitive. These softer elements have lower melting and solidification temperatures than steel. So in the liquid weld puddle, they tend to migrate to the center of the weld where they are the last elements to solidify. This high concentration of softer elements in the center of the weld bead often leads to centerline cracking from the solidification shrinkage stresses of the weld. Additionally, in the case of hardfacing or overlay applications, deeper penetration may dilute the weld deposit chemistry and potentially decrease its resulting wear resistance properties. Overlay welds are simply "bead on plate" welds. Figure 9 shows a weld overlay with minimum penetration and thus minimum admixture between the weld metal and base plate. Figure 10 shows a bead on plate weld with deeper penetration and thus much more admixture between the weld metal and base plate. Figure 9: While not necessarily related to weld strength, there are situations in which deeper weld penetration can be beneficial. Here are three examples:. As stated earlier, you must achieve complete fusion at the root of a weld joint. When you have a welding procedure that produces a deeper weld penetration and a resulting wider penetration profile , you increase the chances of still achieving complete fusion at the root, even with welders that have limited skills. A deeper and broader penetration profile covers a bigger area. Thus you are more likely to still hit the root i. Figure 6 shows examples of CJP groove welds in a butt joint with a root face dimension i. These joints will be welded from the first side with one or more passes, depending on plate thickness. Then typically the weldment is flipped over and welded from the second side again, with one or more passes. To achieve complete joint penetration, the plates must be bevelled, as in the double V joint shown in the top picture. Or if it is a square edge joint shown in bottom picture , then after the first side is welded, the second side of joint must first be back gouged to sound weld metal. Then the second side is welded. If welding procedures that produced a deeper weld penetration were used, then the depth of the joint bevels would not need to be as deep, making the root face longer. Or in the case of square edges, not as much base plate on the second side would need to be removed by back gouging before sound weld metal was reached. In either case, the volume of weld metal required to fill the joint would be reduced. This reduces both the amount of filler metal required to fill the joint and the welding time. Less welding would also reduce potential plate warpage issues. For fillet welds with a flat face and even leg sizes, the distance from the weld face to the root is called the theoretical throat. One such way, utilizing in-process monitoring for weld penetration depth prediction, is suggested and evaluated here. A sufficient prediction performance of a real-time system for this purpose will enable adaptive control to minimize the contribution in the variance in penetration depth that is caused by variations in gap size. This system could also be useful for post process quality control where the in-process data can direct inspection activities only to suspicious areas of the welded seam. Cross cut images of fillet welds with different gap size g. It is difficult to inspect and control the penetration depth in most fillet welds since it is not visible after welding. A common procedure, however, is to use destructive testing, even though there are many downsides with this approach. The method is in general expensive and time-consuming, and gives only a limited number of samples along the weld seam not showing the whole picture. The preferable solution for the welding industry would be to be able to predict the penetration depth already before or during welding, the latter by in-process monitoring. Productivity is in general very much influenced by the existence of uncertainties in the result. If the variation in penetration depth is too large, this will typically be handled by increasing the safety margins, such as adding extra welded material, slowing down the welding travel speed or handling it by extra repairs etc. This is the traditional way for different functions within manufacturing industries to handle uncertainty. These safety margins in each production step of course lead to increased cost due to extra labour and consumables. An even more serious effect is the influence this has on long-term development. When the designer is unsure of the quality, it is unlikely that he or she will decrease safety margins or try new design solutions. Many times, it gives a sense of safety to stick with old solutions since they are proven. That could significantly decrease the rate of production inventions being implemented. In-process monitoring of MAG welding has been addressed by many researchers and for many purposes during several decades. One major field is directed toward joint tracking systems aiming at compensating for tolerances in fixturing and manipulator motions. These systems are based on identification of geometrical details of the joint edge in a control strategy [ 3 , 21 , 26 , 29 , 32 ]. An interesting approach is suggested in [ 10 ] where the arc current is measured with a rotational arc sensor to detect the deviation and inclination of the welding torch. Another significant field of monitoring is camera-based feature extraction looking at e. Several evaluations of spectrometer measurements of the arc plasma for monitoring of process stability are reported in e. Simpson has published results about signature images for fault detection such as contaminations, out of position and poor fit up. The signatures are based on acquired signals of the welding current and arc voltage [ 27 , 28 ]. Some examples of methods using acoustic signals to monitor lack of fusion, burn through and welding arc length can be found in [ 5 , 6 , 30 ]. Other interesting examples employ the use of temperature field monitoring by infrared cameras for monitoring of the heat input [ 11 , 12 ]. Although all these examples of research endeavours are industrially relevant, they share the common factor that most of the results end up in laboratories. One reason for not being used industrially is most likely the harsh nature of the MAG process. Different physics interact and experience disturbances that make it difficult to make accurate measurements or estimates. The hostility in the welding processes e. Another reason for the limited use of external sensors is the industrial need for mechanical robustness and flexibility in welding tools. External devices such as sensors and cameras can impose restrictions in how the system can be used in real production, e. This constitutes a bottle neck in the endeavours to industrially implement automatic in-process monitoring and adaptive control. This paper evaluates the novel experimental methods to predict the weld penetration depth during welding by using an estimated gap size obtained from camera images. Measured data of penetration depth from welds with known variation in the gap along the joint reveals a linear relation between penetration and gap which is used for the prediction. The monitoring of the gap is limited to image sequences from vision and infrared cameras. The purpose with this evaluation is to make a pilot investigation of the technical possibilities and limitations with in-process monitoring for weld penetration prediction. Some of the equipment used camera and optics does not have the mechanical robustness and flexibility needed in industry. However, the equipment used is not regarded by the authors as a technical barrier since further robustification is considered as an issue of technical development of solutions that already exists. Other aspects such as financial consequences and organizational issues are not considered here. For the purpose of gap size estimation, two types of CMOS cameras were observing the process: Normalized spectral arc emissions during welding. The dotted and dashed lines are the normalized spectral responses of the two cameras. Additional optical filters have been used to suppress the irradiation from the highly intense arc plasma. These emissions are caused by ionized argon and elements in the base- and filler metal mainly iron. In addition to the reduction in throat thickness there is the potential for additional problems such as overlap at the weld toe due to the larger weld pool size Fig. Both the potential problems shown in Figs. Root penetration is also commonly reduced in single-pass welds that exhibit such shapes. Poor fit-up can also reduce the throat thickness as in Fig. The corner of the vertical component has been bevelled in the sketch in an exaggerated manner to illustrate the point. Fillet welded joints are not only the most frequently used weld joints but are also one of the most difficult to weld with any real degree of consistency. Fillet welded joints are not always open to volumetric NDT, which may be seen as unjustified due to the difficulties in inspecting, such as access for the film location in RT, and highly time-consuming inspection techniques with UT, where the results are often difficult to interpret. Inspection methods such as visual testing, magnetic testing and penetrant testing are surface examination techniques only. With visual testing, much of the effort is expended in measuring the size of the weld rather than identifying other quality aspects. Fillet welded joints are therefore much more difficult to weld and to inspect volumetrically. Often the welds that are produced are larger than they need to be or they may be of a poor shape which can adversely influence their service performance. Welders themselves also need to be adequately trained and sufficiently skilled to be capable of maintaining an acceptable weld quality, weld size and the most appropriate level of workmanship. A fillet weld is the most common weld type in steel building construction. The Directional Method is described below. Figure 03 - Beam. When modeling, the weld must be connected to the edges of two elements. One of these elements can also be a dummy element. Figure 04 - Table 1..

Welding in the Deep penetration fillet weld 57 6: Weld J 88 3: Goecke SF Visualisation and control of the heat input in MAG welding of ultra-high-strength manganese-boron steels.

Hillers B, Graeser A Real time more info video observation system.

Singapore Google Scholar. Commun Stat: Theory and Methods 6 9: Kainuma S, Mori T A fatigue strength evaluation method for load-carrying fillet welded cruciform joints. Int J Fatigue 28 8: Lenef AL, Gardner CS Optical emissions from weld Deep penetration fillet weld and their effects on the performance of welding robot vision systems. Appl Opt 24 Smaller fillet welds decrease the amount of weld metal needed, and may even allow for increased travel speeds.

Vinigar Xxx Watch Monster cock complete deepthroat videos Video Porn hos. Again, weld strength is not determined by the level of penetration into the base plates. Note also that with a CJP groove weld, the size of the weld does not determine weld strength either, as it does with a fillet weld. Rather, weld size is simply the resulting volume of weld metal necessary to fill in the joint of the proper dimensions i. Proper joint dimensions are those which allow enough access of the electrode into the joint so that good welding techniques can be used to achieve complete fusion with the base plates and steel backing bar. In addition, proper joint dimensions are necessary to ensure that the root pass has the correct depth to width ratio discussed later in this article. Figure 4: Parts of a Groove Weld. The need to achieve complete fusion has been emphasized in this article. That is because a problem can arise if you have a lack of fusion in any part of the joint. This can be a discontinuity with the sidewall fusion, properly termed joint penetration , or fusion at the root, properly termed root penetration. Incomplete fusion can become a weld defect area, which can affect the weld strength and ultimately lead to weld failure. Figure 5 shows examples of acceptable and unacceptable weld profiles. Figure 5: Fillet Weld Profiles. While not necessarily related to weld strength, there are situations in which deeper weld penetration can be beneficial. Here are three examples:. As stated earlier, you must achieve complete fusion at the root of a weld joint. When you have a welding procedure that produces a deeper weld penetration and a resulting wider penetration profile , you increase the chances of still achieving complete fusion at the root, even with welders that have limited skills. A deeper and broader penetration profile covers a bigger area. Thus you are more likely to still hit the root i. Figure 6 shows examples of CJP groove welds in a butt joint with a root face dimension i. Again, weld strength is not determined by the level of penetration into the base plates. Note also that with a CJP groove weld, the size of the weld does not determine weld strength either, as it does with a fillet weld. Rather, weld size is simply the resulting volume of weld metal necessary to fill in the joint of the proper dimensions i. Proper joint dimensions are those which allow enough access of the electrode into the joint so that good welding techniques can be used to achieve complete fusion with the base plates and steel backing bar. In addition, proper joint dimensions are necessary to ensure that the root pass has the correct depth to width ratio discussed later in this article. The need to achieve complete fusion has been emphasized in this article. That is because a problem can arise if you have a lack of fusion in any part of the joint. This can be a discontinuity with the sidewall fusion, properly termed joint penetration , or fusion at the root, properly termed root penetration. Incomplete fusion can become a weld defect area, which can affect the weld strength and ultimately lead to weld failure. Figure 5 shows examples of acceptable and unacceptable weld profiles. While not necessarily related to weld strength, there are situations in which deeper weld penetration can be beneficial. Here are three examples:. As stated earlier, you must achieve complete fusion at the root of a weld joint. When you have a welding procedure that produces a deeper weld penetration and a resulting wider penetration profile , you increase the chances of still achieving complete fusion at the root, even with welders that have limited skills. A deeper and broader penetration profile covers a bigger area. Thus you are more likely to still hit the root i. Figure 6 shows examples of CJP groove welds in a butt joint with a root face dimension i. These joints will be welded from the first side with one or more passes, depending on plate thickness. The corner of the vertical component has been bevelled in the sketch in an exaggerated manner to illustrate the point. Fillet welded joints are not only the most frequently used weld joints but are also one of the most difficult to weld with any real degree of consistency. Fillet welded joints are not always open to volumetric NDT, which may be seen as unjustified due to the difficulties in inspecting, such as access for the film location in RT, and highly time-consuming inspection techniques with UT, where the results are often difficult to interpret. Inspection methods such as visual testing, magnetic testing and penetrant testing are surface examination techniques only. With visual testing, much of the effort is expended in measuring the size of the weld rather than identifying other quality aspects. Fillet welded joints are therefore much more difficult to weld and to inspect volumetrically. Often the welds that are produced are larger than they need to be or they may be of a poor shape which can adversely influence their service performance. Welders themselves also need to be adequately trained and sufficiently skilled to be capable of maintaining an acceptable weld quality, weld size and the most appropriate level of workmanship. Software Products. Go to Technical knowledge Search. Login Login. Members' Portal. When modeling, the weld must be connected to the edges of two elements. One of these elements can also be a dummy element. Figure 04 - Table 1. Figure 05 - Table 5. Do you have questions or need advice? Contact our free e-mail, chat, or forum support or find various suggested solutions and useful tips on our FAQ page. These safety margins in each production step of course lead to increased cost due to extra labour and consumables. An even more serious effect is the influence this has on long-term development. When the designer is unsure of the quality, it is unlikely that he or she will decrease safety margins or try new design solutions. Many times, it gives a sense of safety to stick with old solutions since they are proven. That could significantly decrease the rate of production inventions being implemented. In-process monitoring of MAG welding has been addressed by many researchers and for many purposes during several decades. One major field is directed toward joint tracking systems aiming at compensating for tolerances in fixturing and manipulator motions. These systems are based on identification of geometrical details of the joint edge in a control strategy [ 3 , 21 , 26 , 29 , 32 ]. An interesting approach is suggested in [ 10 ] where the arc current is measured with a rotational arc sensor to detect the deviation and inclination of the welding torch. Another significant field of monitoring is camera-based feature extraction looking at e. Several evaluations of spectrometer measurements of the arc plasma for monitoring of process stability are reported in e. Simpson has published results about signature images for fault detection such as contaminations, out of position and poor fit up. The signatures are based on acquired signals of the welding current and arc voltage [ 27 , 28 ]. Some examples of methods using acoustic signals to monitor lack of fusion, burn through and welding arc length can be found in [ 5 , 6 , 30 ]. Other interesting examples employ the use of temperature field monitoring by infrared cameras for monitoring of the heat input [ 11 , 12 ]. Although all these examples of research endeavours are industrially relevant, they share the common factor that most of the results end up in laboratories. One reason for not being used industrially is most likely the harsh nature of the MAG process. Different physics interact and experience disturbances that make it difficult to make accurate measurements or estimates. The hostility in the welding processes e. Another reason for the limited use of external sensors is the industrial need for mechanical robustness and flexibility in welding tools. External devices such as sensors and cameras can impose restrictions in how the system can be used in real production, e. This constitutes a bottle neck in the endeavours to industrially implement automatic in-process monitoring and adaptive control. This paper evaluates the novel experimental methods to predict the weld penetration depth during welding by using an estimated gap size obtained from camera images. Measured data of penetration depth from welds with known variation in the gap along the joint reveals a linear relation between penetration and gap which is used for the prediction. The monitoring of the gap is limited to image sequences from vision and infrared cameras. The purpose with this evaluation is to make a pilot investigation of the technical possibilities and limitations with in-process monitoring for weld penetration prediction. Some of the equipment used camera and optics does not have the mechanical robustness and flexibility needed in industry. However, the equipment used is not regarded by the authors as a technical barrier since further robustification is considered as an issue of technical development of solutions that already exists. Other aspects such as financial consequences and organizational issues are not considered here. For the purpose of gap size estimation, two types of CMOS cameras were observing the process: Normalized spectral arc emissions during welding. The dotted and dashed lines are the normalized spectral responses of the two cameras. Additional optical filters have been used to suppress the irradiation from the highly intense arc plasma. These emissions are caused by ionized argon and elements in the base- and filler metal mainly iron. A dielectric filter with a central wavelength at nm and a nm band pass region is placed in the optical path of the vision camera. Another filter with a central wavelength at nm and a nm band pass region is placed in the optical path of the infrared camera. See Fig. The frame rate of both synchronized cameras was fps in order to be able to smooth the feature extraction data by temporal image sequence filtering. The registration has been accomplished by a manual procedure where a suitable sized checkerboard has been captured by both cameras. These images have in turn been used to manually define some corresponding control points in both images in order to fit a geometric transformation. Using image fusion has several advantages, including wider spatial and temporal coverage, decreased uncertainty, improved reliability and increased robustness of system performance [ 20 ]. Principal component analysis-based image fusion has been chosen for evaluation in this work [ 19 ]. Devises from National Instruments were used for image acquisition and controlled by a LabVIEW program in order to capture time-synchronized images from the cameras. Gap size g and penetration depth i along the weld joint. The solid line is the nominal geometry of the joint gap g..

This benefit could be potentially realized by using the Submerged Arc Welding SAW process, known for its deep penetration capabilities.

Other arc welding processes can be capable of achieving deep penetration as well. Deep penetration fillet weld, the fabrication shop must be capable of producing the deeper penetration level on a consistent basis, so this concept may Deep penetration fillet weld always be applicable. Figure 7: There are also situations in which deeper weld penetration can be detrimental. Here are three examples: Deep penetration can be troublesome when burn through is a concern. When welding on thin material, such as gauge thickness sheet metal, too much penetration can cause the weld to burn all the way through the joint and fall out the bottom.

In other cases, a thin root pass is made in an open root joint e. If the second pass has too much penetration, burning through the root pass can be an issue.

If penetration is too deep, centerline cracking a form of hot cracking may become an issue. See Figure 8 for an example of a centerline crack in a Deep penetration fillet weld weld.

Fucking sister Watch Hello ebony milfs Video Rituparna naked. Generally, no design credit of extra weld strength is given for normal root penetration. However, if significant and consistent root penetration can be achieved, which significantly increases the effective throat depth, then the fillet leg size can be reduced without sacrificing weld strength see example in Figure 7. Deeper weld penetration does not produce a fillet weld with more weld strength. Rather, it allows a smaller fillet weld to be made with the same strength level as a larger fillet weld made with less weld penetration. Smaller fillet welds decrease the amount of weld metal needed, and may even allow for increased travel speeds. This benefit could be potentially realised by using the Submerged Arc Welding SAW process, known for its deep penetration capabilities. Other arc welding processes can be capable of achieving deep penetration as well. However, the fabrication shop must be capable of producing the deeper penetration level on a consistent basis, so this concept may not always be applicable. This Welding Innovations article from the James F. Lincoln Foundation website discusses this topic in more detail. Figure 7: There are also situations in which deeper weld penetration can be detrimental. Deep penetration can be troublesome when burn through is a concern. When welding on thin material, such as gauge thickness sheet metal, too much penetration can cause the weld to burn all the way through the joint and fall out the bottom. In other cases, a thin root pass is made in an open root joint e. If the second pass has too much penetration, burning through the root pass can be an issue. If penetration is too deep, centerline cracking a form of hot cracking may become an issue. See Figure 8 for an example of a centerline crack in a fillet weld. It can be concluded that the suggested method, evaluated off-line, is promising to really achieve in-process monitoring for prediction of weld penetration depth during one-sided fillet welding using the MAG process. A first conclusion might be that the results are rather pessimistic see Fig. It is however believed that further development of the methods used will result in a better prediction performance. Empirical modelling resulted in a linear fit between joint gap size and weld penetration depth in the gap size range between 0 and 1 mm. Even though there is an uncertainty in data, it is regarded reasonable to assume a linear relation in this range. When comparing the results from the camera setup, one can conclude that the infrared camera performs best and that image fusing requiring two cameras does not add any significant improvement in performance. Especially when considering the additional complexity and cost associated with a double-camera setup, it is concluded that further efforts to reach a better prediction performance should only include one camera. It is expected that improvements can be done in the numerical feature extraction but the major improvements will come from optimizing the physical pose of the camera and the optical setup. Future work should be directed towards further developments of the method for increased robustness both in the prediction and in an industrially tractable physical setup of the monitoring equipment. The method should also be evaluated in a real-time system. Another interesting option is to evaluate the performance of closed-loop control using penetration monitoring to adopt the welding current to variations in gap size. In order to implement the proposed method in industrial production, some further steps have to be considered. In-process monitoring requires dedicated hardware real-time computing for synchronized image processing, feature extraction and recursive data filtering. The camera and optical system also needs to be embedded and integrated in the welding tool with sufficient shielding from process emissions spatter and heat. This integration should also be made in such way that it does not impose major restrictions on the flexibility of the welding tool. The gap size estimate used for prediction also requires a calibration of the optical set up that is used. The use of other base metals, plate thickness and MAG processes most probably requires separate experiments for each combination in order to establish the relation between penetration and gap for the actual situation. The research work behind this paper has been partly funded by The Knowledge Foundation. A great contribution has been made by the staff at the Volvo CE Arvika plant. A special thanks to Xiao Xiao Zhang for preparing the test samples and Anna-Karin Christiansson for proof reading and input to the text. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. Prediction of penetration in one-sided fillet welds by in-process joint gap monitoring—an experimental study. Open Access. First Online: The penetration depth in fillet welds corresponds to the extension of bounding in the root between plates see Fig. The reason for addressing this issue is that imperfections in the weld root has an influence on fatigue life and structural integrity [ 9 ]. This in turn has a direct negative effect on the quality and service life of welded structures. Important mechanisms behind variations in penetration depth are for example inaccuracy in the robotic manipulator motions, plate surface condition joint preparation and variations in the joint gap. The latter mechanism is considered to be a major source of variance and is caused by wide fit-up tolerances in the included plate members. This situation is very common in welding production in e. Open image in new window. Typical fillet welds are shown in Fig. A cruciform weld sample was produced from mm-long metal plates of mm-thick standard structural steel, S, aligned to form two one-sided corner joints. The geometry has zero gap sections along the joints alternated with three equally spaced segments, each mm long, with a well-defined gap in the form of arches with a maximum height of 1 mm. This joint gap geometry was produced by water jet cutting. Furthermore, the plates were tack welded in the zero gap sections. In total, six segments of known variation in gap size were evaluated. The MAG process mode used was spray arc. Copper-coated 1. The welding robot was programmed to execute torch weaving with a weaving frequency of 2. No joint tracking system was applied. Table 1 Nominal welding parameters. Parameter Value Voltage In either case, the volume of weld metal required to fill the joint would be reduced. This reduces both the amount of filler metal required to fill the joint and the welding time. Less welding would also reduce potential plate warpage issues. Figure 6: Joints Requiring Penetration. For fillet welds with a flat face and even leg sizes, the distance from the weld face to the root is called the theoretical throat. If you achieve fusion beyond the root, then the actual or effective throat length increases see Figure 3 for identification of the theoretical and actual throats. Generally no design credit of extra weld strength is given for normal root penetration. However, if significant and consistent root penetration can be achieved, which significantly increases the effective throat depth, then the fillet leg size can be reduced without sacrificing weld strength see example in Figure 7. Deeper weld penetration does not produce a fillet weld with more weld strength. Rather, it allows a smaller fillet weld to be made with the same strength level as a larger fillet weld made with less weld penetration. Smaller fillet welds decrease the amount of weld metal needed, and may even allow for increased travel speeds. This benefit could be potentially realized by using the Submerged Arc Welding SAW process, known for its deep penetration capabilities. Other arc welding processes can be capable of achieving deep penetration as well. However, the fabrication shop must be capable of producing the deeper penetration level on a consistent basis, so this concept may not always be applicable. Figure 7: There are also situations in which deeper weld penetration can be detrimental. Here are three examples: Deep penetration can be troublesome when burn through is a concern. When welding on thin material, such as gauge thickness sheet metal, too much penetration can cause the weld to burn all the way through the joint and fall out the bottom. In other cases, a thin root pass is made in an open root joint e. The designer may specify a leg length that is equal to the material thickness as in Fig. Strength considerations may mean that the fillet weld size does not need to be anywhere near the plate thickness. In practice the weld may also be deficient in other ways, for example:. Due to melting away of the corner of the upper plate Fig. Care is therefore needed to ensure that the corner of the upper plate is not melted away. Ideally the weld should be some 0. The designer may therefore specify a slightly smaller leg length compared to the thickness of the component. To compensate for this reduction in throat thickness it may be necessary to specify a deep penetration fillet weld. This amount of additional penetration would need to be confirmed by suitable weld tests. Additional controls may also be needed during production welding to ensure that this additional penetration is being achieved consistently. In addition to the reduction in throat thickness there is the potential for additional problems such as overlap at the weld toe due to the larger weld pool size Fig. Both the potential problems shown in Figs. The Directional Method is described below. Figure 03 - Beam. When modeling, the weld must be connected to the edges of two elements. One of these elements can also be a dummy element. Figure 04 - Table 1. Figure 05 - Table 5..

A balance must be maintained Deep penetration fillet weld the depth of penetration and the width of the root pass. This keeps the shape of the weld fairly uniform. As Deep penetration fillet weld weld metal solidifies, the shrinkage stresses are thus fairly uniform in all directions. However, if the weld is significantly deeper than wide, then the shrinkage stresses are unequal and the weld click here crack in the center of the bead as a result.

Figure 8: Too much admixture with the base plate may also be a problem with deep penetration welds. As penetration increases, so does the volume of base plate that is melted and combined with the filler metal in the resulting weld puddle. This can possibly add additional elements into the weld puddle that makes the weld more crack sensitive.

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Cross-Section Properties. Deep penetration fillet weld Programs. Social Networks. Free Trial Version. Examples and Tutorials. About Us. A fillet weld Deep penetration fillet weld the most common weld type in steel building construction. The Directional Method is described below. Figure click here - Beam. When modeling, the weld must be connected to the edges of two elements.

One of these elements can also be a dummy element. Figure 04 - Table 1. Figure 05 - Table 5. Do you have questions or need advice? Contact our free e-mail, chat, or forum support or find various suggested solutions and useful tips on our FAQ page. Section properties, stress analysis, and plastic design of open and closed thin-walled cross-sections.

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Login Login. Create New Account Reset Password. Structural Analysis and Design Software. Back to Knowledge Base. The design resistance of the fillet weld will be sufficient if the following are both satisfied: Springer Vieweg.

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Cross-Sections Thin-Walled. Cross-Section Properties Software. Price of First License Deep penetration fillet weld, Contacts Dlubal Software, Inc. All Rights Reserved. The penetration depth in fillet welds corresponds to the extension of penetration (indicated with dashed horizontal lines) is much deeper (in. This reduces the required quantity of filler metal and, if the penetration fillet weld can where ω is the weld size.

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The deep penetration of fillet welds made by the. Fillet welds should be as small as permitted by design – for example. can be achieved for the same leg length if a deep penetration Deep penetration fillet weld weld is made; the.

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Fig Fillet welds are suitable for lap joints and Tee joints and groove . For a deep penetration weld, the depth of penetration should be a minimum of.

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